Shut-down Reactors 1/12

Shut-down Reactors
in Germany

Biblis A
Start of construction: 1970
Start of operation: 1975
Type: pressurised-water reactor
Net capacity: 1225 MW
Status: out of operation since 2011
Comments: The environmental organization Greenpeace says, Biblis A came mainly in December 1987 in the headlines when a faulty valve caused the leakage of radioactive cooling water. Only by luck the valve could be closes against the high pressure again and the loss even greater amounts of coolant water could be avoided. A loss of coolant water can force a meltdown..

Biblis B
Start of construction: 1972
Start of operation: 1977
Type: pressurised-water reactor
Net capacity: 1300 MW
Status: out of operation since 2011
Comments: “The decommissioning and dismantling of the two units at Biblis we have to calculate 1.5 billion euros”, said RWE-Power-chairman Gerd Jäger.

Shut-down Reactors 2/12

Brunsbüttel
Start of construction: 1970
Start of operation: 1977
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 806 MW
Status: out of operation since 2011
Comments: In January 2015 the Federal Administrative Court decides that the approval of the interim storage of Castor was illegal and therefore null.

Grafenrheinfeld
Start of construction: 1975
Start of operation: 1982
Type: pressurised water reactor
Net capacity: 1345 MW
Status: out of operation since 2015

Greifswald 1
Start of construction: 1970
Start of operation: 1974
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: shut down 1990
Comments: In 1975 occurred almost a meltdown of the dimensions of the Chernobyl disaster. It fell out all protection systems: emergency power, the emergency cooling system and display devices in the control room. The reactor was burning. 11 pumps ran no more, and only because by chance the twelfth pump was connected to the power supply of the functioning reactor 2, was enough cooling water available, so a meltdown could be avoided. This near-meltdown was consistently concealed from the GDR leadership until 1989. On 18th Dec.1990 reactor 5 was shut down as the last reactor in Greifswald.

Shut-down Reactors 3/12

Greifswald 2
Start of construction: 1970
Start of operation: 19745
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: shut down 1990
Comments: The German Unification Treaty (§ 57a AtG ) determines that the former GDR permissions for nuclear power plants will be invalid at June 30th 1995. Serious safety deficiencies resulted in the recommendation for a temporary shutdown of reactor 2 and 3 in February 1990. Therefore, the GDR authorities switched these two reactors immediately. They never went back to the grid.

Greifswald 3
Start of construction: 1972
Start of operation: 1978
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: shut down 1990

Greifswald 4
Start of construction: 1972
Start of operation: 1979
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: shut down 1990
Comments: Reactor 4 has been covered in early summer 1990 for the forthcoming revision and no longer put into operation.

Shut-down Reactors 4/12

Greifswald 5
Start of construction: 1976
Start of operation: 1989
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: shut down 1989
Comments: Only a few month was Block 5 of the Greifswald nuclear power plant in test operation running. November 1990 he had to be shut down as part of the German reunification.

Greifswald 6
Start of construction: 1976
Start of operation: –
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: shut down 1990
Comments: The building of the reactor was finished, but as part of the German reunification it went never to the grid.

Greifswald 7
Start of construction: 1978
Start of operation: –
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: never went to the grid
Comments: The building of the reactor was stopped October 1990.

Greifswald 8
Start of construction: 1978
Start of operation: –
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 440 MW
Status: never went to the grid
Comments: The building of the reactor was stopped October 1990. According to the answer of the Federal Government of Germany in 2010, the taxpayer has to pay 2.2 billion euros for the dismantling of the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant.

Shut-down Reactors 5/12

Großwelzheim
Start of construction: 1965
Start of operation: 1970
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 25 MW
Status: shut down 1971, deconstructed between 1988 and 2008
Comments: The prototype of a boiling water reactor had design defects. Therefore it was shut down only one and a half year after its start of operation.

Gundremmingen A
Start of construction: 1962
Start of operation: 1967
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 250 MW
Status: shut down 1977
Comments: 1975 occurred the first accident in a German reactor with two dead people. 1977: total loss after a short circuit.

Hamm-Uentrop
Start of construction: 1971
Start of operation: 1985
Type: high-temperature reactor reactor
Net capacity: 308 MW
Status: shut down 1988
Comments: In the high-temperature reactor Hamm-Uentrop, the hope of the nuclear industry founded. But instead of 690 million D-Mark it cost 4 billion, paid two-thirds by the federal government and 11 per cent by the provincial government. After a disturbance just a week after the disaster at Chernobyl, the reactor was taken offline. The final shut down followed 1988, during operation time it was running full duty only 423 days.

Shut-down Reactors 6/12

Isar 1 (Ohu)
Start of construction: 1972
Start of operation: 1979
Status: out of operation since 2011
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 912 MW
Comments: The wall thicknesses of Isar 1 amount only 35 to 120 centimeters – too few, according to experts. New reactors are protected by walls of 180 centimeters. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima block 1 was turned off.

Jülich
Start of construction: 1961
Start of operation: 1969
Type: high-temperature reactor
Net capacity: 15 MW
Status: shut down 1988, deconstructed in parts until 2017
Comments: Jülich was a research reactor in GFR, shut down in 1988 after a series of incidents. But the fact that there ever had been a problem, has been public more than ten years after closing.

Kahl
Start of construction: 1958
Start of operation: 1961
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 16 MW
Status: shut down 1985, deconstructed between 1988 and 2010
Comments: Kahl was the first research reactor in GFR, at the same time Kahl is the first reactor in the world that has been completely deconstructed. As Friends of the Earth Germany says, during operation of the reactor there were a total of 90 defects and accidents, considered by seven as seriously.

Shut-down Reactors 7/12

Kalkar
Start of construction: 1973
Start of operation: –
Type: fast breeder
Net capacity: 327 MW
Status: The whole area is rebuilt into an amusement park. The cooling tower is now used for climbing.
Comments: The fast breeder in Kalkar was finished in 1991, but it went not 1 day into the grid. It ends in a disaster for the breeder technology. The calculated costs of 310 million German marks (1963) rose to 6,5 billion. The German Government subsidized it with 90 percent.

Karlsruhe 1
Start of construction: 1966
Start of operation: 1974
Type: Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK)
Net capacity: 21 MW
Status: out of operation since 1974, deconstruction until 2019
Comments: The Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK) was an experimental power plant. During operation, there were various disorders.

Karlsruhe 2
Start of construction: 1974
Start of operation: 1979
Type: Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK)
Net capacity: 21 MW
Status: out of operation since 1991, deconstruction until 2019
Comments: The Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility Karlsruhe 1 in 1977 was reconfigured with a fast core and was known as fast breeder power plant KNK II. The reactor was used as a test facility for the fast breeder in Kalkar, which never went to the grid.

Shut-down Reactors 8/12

Karlsruhe, MZFR
Start of construction: 1961
Start of operation: 1966
Type: pressurised-water reactor
Net capacity: 57 MW
Status: out of operation since 1984, deconstruction until 2019
Comments: In the 1960s the operation of the multi-purpose research reactor has been characterized by leaks. The staff was subject to increased radiation exposure.

Krümmel
Start of construction: 1974
Start of operation: 1984
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 1402 MW
Status: out of operation since 2009, projected deconstruction until 2038
Comments: On 4th July, after a malfunction in a transformer and an emergency shut-down the reactor was shut down. After Fukushima it lost its operating licence.

Lingen
Start of construction: 1974
Start of operation: 1968
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 268 MW
Status: shut down 1977, projected deconstruction until 2038
Comments: As Friends of the Earth Germany says, on Lingen there since 1977 nationwide the first indications of an increase in cancer rates, but remained without clear results due to low numbers and controversial criteria. After a malfunction the nuclear reactor war shut down in 1977.

Shut-down Reactors 9/12

Mülheim-Kärlich
Start of construction: 1972
Start of operation: 1976
Type: pressurised water reactor
Net capacity: 840 MW
Status: out of operation since 2011
Comments: After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima block 1 of the nuclear power plant Neckarwestheim was turned off.

Niederaichbach
Start of construction: 1966
Start of operation: 1973
Type: graphite-moderated pressure tube reactor
Net capacity: 106 MW
Status: final shut down in 1974, deconstred between 1987 and 1995
Comments: The nuclear power plant Niederaichbach was only 18 days running full duty, when it was shut down permanently due to technical problems. The deconstruction cost around 280 million D-Mark, the Federal Government of Germany said.

Obrigheim
Start of construction: 1965
Start of operation: 1969
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 357 MW
Status: final shut down in 2005, deconstruction until 2020
Comments: As Robin Wood says, from its 37 years of operation the nuclear power plant Obrigheim had no permanent operating license for 24 years.

Shut-down Reactors 10/12

Philippsburg 1
Start of construction: 1970
Start of operation: 1980
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 926 MW
Status: out of operation since 2011
Comments: After the Fukushima disaster the reactor was shut down.

Rheinsberg
Start of construction: 1960
Start of operation: 1966
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 70 MW
Status: shut down 1990, deconstruction until 2020
Comments: The Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Plant was the first commercially used reactor of the GDR. A serious incident occurred in 1987, a radioactive liquid came into the ground. After reunion Rheinberg was taken off the grid in June 1990 – two years earlier than originally planned.

Stade
Start of construction: 1968
Start of operation: 1975
Type: pressurised water reactor
Net capacity: 672 MW
Status: final shutdown 2003, deconstruction until 2017
Comments: Stade was the first reactor, that was shut down after the first nuclear-phase out in Germany.

Shut-down Reactors 11/12

Stendal 1
Start of construction: 1982
Start of operation: –
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 970 MW
Status: never went to the grid
Comments: The building of the reactor was stopped March 1991.

Stendal 2
Start of construction: 1984
Start of operation: –
Type: pressurised water reactor Soviet construction
Net capacity: 970 MW
Status: never went to the grid
Comments: The building of the reactor was stopped March 1991. Reactor 1 and 2 cost the GDR more than 3 billion US-Dollar. For the deconstruction is now the tax payer responsible.

Unterweser
Start of construction: 1968
Start of operation: 1975
Type: pressurised water reactor
Net capacity: 672 MW
Status: final shutdown 2003, deconstruction until 2017
Comments: Stade was the first reactor, that was shut down after the first nuclear-phase out in Germany.

Shut-down Reactors 12/12

Whyl
Start of construction: –
Start of operation: –
Type: pressurised-water reactor
Net capacity: 1375 MW
Status: After years of clashes with the local population , the state government abandoned the project in 1977.
Comments: The former prime minister of Baden-Württemberg, Hans-Georg Filbinger, said: “If the nuclear power plant Whyl not will be build, then in Baden-Württemberg the lights will switch off.” Although Whyl was stopped, we had no electricity breakdown till today.

Wackersdorf
Start of construction: 1985
Start of operation: –
Type: nuclear reprocessing plant
Capacity: 500 tons atomic waste yearly
Status: After years of clashes with the local population and anti nuclear-demonstrators, Franz-Josef Strauß, the prime minister auf Bavaria, stopped the project.
Comments: The atomic industry decided to bring its atomic waste into the French nuclear reprocessing plant La Hague. Investments into Wackersdorf till 1989: 2.5 billion German Mark.

Würgassen
Start of construction: 1968
Start of operation: 1975
Type: boiling water reactor
Net capacity: 670 MW
Status: final shutdown 1994, deconstruction until 2028
Comments: 1978 crashed near Drenke and thus eight kilometers from the nuclear power plant Würgassen away a British fighter plane (type McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom) and smashed. That sparked in Germany an intensive discussion of the manner in which nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes are covered sufficiently.